Friday, March 13, 2020

Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War

Philip Caputo, A Rumor of War Free Online Research Papers Philip Caputo was raised in Westchester, Illinois. He spent his fishing, hunting, and dreaming of â€Å"danger, challengers, and violence† (Caputo 5) in the Cook and DuPage County forest preserves. Tired of his dull life, Philip wanted excitement and a â€Å"chance to live heroically† (5). While attending Loyola University, Caputo rummaged through the Marine Corps recruiting material. Subsequently, he joined the Marine Corps Platoon leaders Class, attended Officer Candidate School, received his B.A. in English, and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant on February 2, 1964. Lieutenant Caputo was with the first ground combat unit to land in Vietnam in March of 1965 ( ). He went from a â€Å"boot brown-bar† (Caputo 33) to a seasoned infantry officer during his sixteen month tour of duty. Caputo started writing A Rumor of War in 1967 while living at the Bachelor’s Officer Quarters at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. He did not finish the book until September of 1976 in Pine Creek, Montana. After leaving the Marine Corps, he worked for the Chicago Tribune as a Foreign Correspondent. He was extremely busy reporting in areas such as Saigon and Lebanon that he did not have time to work on his first book; â€Å"the manuscript often lay in a drawer for months. There was a period, in the early 70’s, when I didn’t look at it for more than a week or two a year† (Caputo 347). A Rumor of War tells the story of the Vietnam War from the soldier’s perspective. Caputo puts everything into perspective by describing every detail of war through his personal experience. This account allows readers to have a better understanding of the reality of war and what these young men endured. Caputo has since written several novels including Horn of Africa, Del Corso’s Gallery, and Means of Escape. He currently lives in Connecticut and works as a Contributing Editor for Esquire Magazine. In the past Philip has written for The New York Times, Washington Post, Boston Globe, and The Los Angeles Times. He was also a member of the Pulitzer Prize winning team covering election fraud during his time at the Chicago Tribune. The overall critical reviews of Philip Caputo’s A Rumor of War are outstanding. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt of The New York Times hailed the book as â€Å"singular and marvelous, one that, tells us, as no other book that I can think of has done, what it was actually like to be fighting in that hellish jungle† (Contemporary Authors Online). The heartfelt and brutal honesty in Caputo’s writing had William Broyles of Texas Monthly declare â€Å"Not since Siegfried Sassoon’s Classic of World War I, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer, has there been a war memoir so obviously true, and so disturbingly honest† (Amazon). The magnitude of this story had John Gregory Dunne write â€Å"To call it the best book about Vietnam is to trivialize it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Amazon). Brian King of Clio’s Eye stated A Rumor of War â€Å"reflects much of the pain and ambivalence the nation came to know to well† (1). The general consensus regarding Philip Caputo’s works following A Rumor of War is excellent as well. The praise for Indian Country Caputo’s most recent novel is overwhelmingly positive. The New York Times Book Review states â€Å"Caputo is a fine action writer, controlling the sweep of the narrative with musical skill† (Vintage). The acclaim for Horn of Africa states â€Å"Philip Caputo, from Vietnam onwards, has understood the hardest truths of the modern world better than almost anybody† (Vintage). John Gregory Dunne claims that Caputo’s first collection of short fiction Exiles â€Å"will make the strongest among us weep† (Vintage). The book takes place in Japan and Vietnam. Okinawa, Japan is Caputo’s first duty station after graduation from Basic School. He was assigned to 2nd platoon, C Company, 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines where he served as Platoon Commander for a rifle platoon. There was nothing exciting about Camp Schwab; a camp that consisted of â€Å"ranks of concrete barracks and chain linked fences which looked more like a minimum security prison than a home† (Caputo 30). A short Taxi ride into town was the closest thing to civilization (Caputo 30). The streets of Heneko were lined with bars which had ridiculous names such as Bar New York, Club California, and the Blue Hawaii Lounge. Heneko was a place the Marines could rid themselves of the boredom of the isolated base. When the Marines were not unwinding, they were dreaming of action. In the weeks to follow, the Marines of One-Three would gear up and gear down in anticipation of going into Vietnam. Apparently the North Vietnamese had crossed into South Vietnam with the intent of overrunning the country. Excitement and confusion followed. The news of going in to Vietnam changed daily, along with â€Å"weeks of alarms and counter-alarms, stand-tos and stand-downs† (Caputo 37). In March they would finally land in Danang and set up a defensive posture in conjunction with the ARVN. The Marines would quickly learn that Vietnam was totally different than the place they were used to. The toughest battle they faced in the first month in the theater was not with the Viet Cong, but with Vietnam’s climate and wildlife. The mosquito netting and the insect repellant they brought with them â€Å"proved ineffective against the horde of flying, creeping, crawling, buzzing, biting things,† (Caputo 57) that they encountered. The heat and humidity were just as bad â€Å"the terrain and the climate and the attendant diseases were more of an adversary than the Viet Cong† (CNN). From noon until dusk the sun was relentless. Accompanied by a hot wind, it baked everything in sight including the Marines. The dense jungle canopy that they traversed through was also a major obstacle, which at times was so dense that it was impenetrable. The little bit of light that filtered through the foliage managed to â€Å"bathe everything below in a greenish twilight† (Caputo 83). Things could be hear moving around the under brush, but not seen. The monsoon season seemed endless and diseases such as malaria and dysentery were commonplace. The jungle of Vietnam was in itself a battle that was being lost. William â€Å"Wild Bill† Campbell was the platoon sergeant for 2nd platoon. A picture perfect Marine who was a veteran of the Korean War. He stood 6’3’’ and weighed 220 pounds. Campbell ate, slept, and breathed Marine Corps. Being a Veteran of the â€Å"frosin chosin† he was respected by his peers and subordinates alike. He was not a man of paperwork and sometimes he did not follow the Uniformed Code of Military Justice. Campbell would rather punish his men in different ways, which kept their records clean and kept them eligible for promotion. One of Campbell’s biggest passions was close-order drill. He had been previously assigned to Parris Island, South Carolina as a Drill Inspector. It was a skill that he had perfected. Given the opportunity, Campbell would march his platoon around the parade deck for hours. Sergeant Campbell didn’t like officers. He ran his platoon as he saw fit. In his eyes, he was the platoon commander and Caputo was just an â€Å"unavoidable nuisance† (Caputo 30). Campbell was considered a lifer, someone who was more motivated than the average Marine and in it for the long haul. Murph McCloy was also a Lieutenant with One-Three. He was a modest man from Kentucky. McCloy had already been with the unit before Lieutenant Caputo had arrived. Murph and Caputo became friends almost immediately. They hung out together on liberty and talked about anything to keep their minds off of the Vietnam War. They were together drinking beer in Okinawa when the call came in to head out for Vietnam. McCloy had done a pervious tour in Vietnam as an observer with the ARVN. Familiar with Danang he was eager to show Philip around the foreign town. They sat down to have dinner with the Commanding Officer of the ARVN battalion McCloy had served with the first night they had liberty. They found their way down to a brothel that McCloy used to frequent. Upon arrival they ran into three Marines from Charley Company who were just coming out. Murph, who was stunned, covered for both of them by saying â€Å"Lieutenant Caputo and I are checking to make sure you men are taking care of yourselves. We hope you’re taking precautions† (Caputo 143). A major theme in A Rumor of War is the men who fight in the war and the moral extremes that they confront along the way. War is a time that changes men. Things which are not accepted as normal behavior during peace time can be found here and are often considered ordinary or usual. As the book unfolds, Caputo observes acts of violence that do not seem right. One time, early in the conflict, he catches a young Marine trying to cut off the ears of a dead Viet Cong as a trophy. He stops the act immediately, but as he thinks about the act he understands why the young Marine was doing this. Another incident that happens is with the South Vietnamese. It was difficult to trust them because of the intelligence which stated how the Viet Cong were embedded in the South. When military operations went wrong the South Vietnamese people were blamed for aiding the Viet Cong, and the consequences for such Snafu’s included killing innocent people â€Å"Well, if it’s dead and Vietnamese, it’s VC† (CNN) or burning entire villages to the ground. These acts were not right. However, when a Marine was killed, it was not uncommon for anger to take over in committing extreme acts of violence. At the beginning of the Vietnam War, 2nd Lieutenant Philip Caputo was a man who believed in the ideals of heroism, serving his country, and being a part of something meaningful. He believed that the Marine Corps stood for all the right things: Honor, Courage, Commitment! Michael Steele states in regards to Caputo’s heroism â€Å"he bought the bullshit about heroism, the patriotic war. So, he goes and joins the Marines, and he records this embittering process† (Steele 6). Caputo maintained this point of view only for a short time. As his company goes to war and his men start dying, he realizes it was not all it was cracked up to be. As his men begin to doubt the fact that they will win this war, so does Lieutenant Caputo, being an officer he tries to maintain his military bearing, but in the end he tells a Marine â€Å"I’m not supposed to say this to you, but I don’t either† (CNN)! The imagery of military weapons and foreign lands are intense. Caputo does not fail in describing every detail of weapons firing and munitions exploding. During one firefight â€Å"three Marines managed to sound like a small army, with Crowe’s shotgun roaring loudly. Then came the flat dull blasts of 40mm as Allen laid down a barrage with his grenade launcher† (Caputo 265). After another fire fight, Caputo’s platoon was getting shelled â€Å"a sound as of lightening striking a tree, a splitting sound. The earth shuddered† (Caputo 270). Caputo also managed to capture Vietnam as if you were standing right next to him. Visions of everlasting green jungle canopies and a variety of blood sucking insects accompany you down his vivid trek through the jungle. Caputo describes the vegetation on a mission: the Cordiller spread out before us, and it was the most forbidding thing I had ever seen. An unbroken mass of green stretched westward, one ridgeline and mountain range after another, some more than a mile high and covered with forests that looked solid enough to walk on. It had no end. It just went on to the horizon. I could see neither villages, nor fields, roads, or anything but endless rain forests the color of old moss. The mosquitoes were terrible. They were so bad that the Marines would stay up instead of sleeping to try and take their mind off of the little bloodsuckers. In the jungle however, there were bigger animals to be afraid of. The â€Å"humid wilderness where the Bengal tiger stalked and the Cobra coiled beneath its rock† (Caputo 82) was just as dangerous without the Viet Cong present. As a member of the Marine Corps I can relate to some of the experiences Caputo illustrates in his novel. The training he went through prior to Vietnam carries on today. I spent a year overseas and understand the difficulties of being an American in a strange land. This novel â€Å"was first published in 1977 and has remained in print ever since† (Neiburg 4). A Rumor of War â€Å"remains a standard text on the Vietnam War† (Key West 1) and Caputo is â€Å"an important and perceptive commentator on what can happen when human beings struggle† (Key West 1) . William Spanos of Boundary 2 indicates the importance of Caputo’s message in his article â€Å"9/11 and the forgetting of the Vietnam War†. Spanos writes: it is imperative that intellectuals who oppose the United States’ representation and conduct of the ‘war against terrorism’ retrieve the forgotten memory of the Vietnam War as Caputo’s deeply backgrounded, representative text articulates it†¦it is not simply its spetcral witness to the terror of America’s exceptionalist ‘search and destroy’ mentality that, despite the sustained attempt to obliterate it from history, continues to haunt the present American government†¦(Spanos 63)Spanos continues to argue that the American action taken in Vietnam will persist in today’s war on terror â€Å"the United States will no doubt succeed in its military mission to defeat the Taliban and to re-create an Afghanistan nation-state in its own image as it did- several times- in Vietnam in the early years of the war† (Spanos 63). â€Å"Caputo, Philip,† 17th Annual Key West Literary Seminar. 12 Apr. 2005 â€Å"Caputo, Philip,† Amazon. 18 Mar. 2005 â€Å"Caputo, Philip,† Contemporary Authors Online. 2005. Thomason Gale. 12 Apr. 2005 â€Å"Caputo, Philip,† Vintage. 18 Mar. 2005 â€Å"CNN Cold War –Interviews: Lt. Philip Caputo,† CNN Interactive. 18 Mar. 2005 King, Brian. â€Å"Rumor of War: Reality of Combat.† 12 Apr. 2005 Neiberg, Michael S., et. al. â€Å"A Rumor of War A Conversation with Philip Caputo at 58.† Commentary Magazine Summer 2000:64. 18 Mar. 2005 Spanos, William V. â€Å"A Rumor of War: 9/11 and the Forgetting of the Vietnam War.† Boundary 2 2003: 29-66. Duke University Press. 12 Apr. 2005 Steele, Michael. Interview with Mike Steele. 18 Mar. 2005 â€Å"Writers Try to Make Sense of the Vietnam-Book Boom,† The New York Times 4 Aug. 1987: C17. 12 Apr. 2005 Research Papers on Philip Caputo, "A Rumor of War"Book Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionTrailblazing by Eric AndersonUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresMind TravelHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Essay19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Do Chinese Firms need to adopt the Anglo-American Model and Can they Essay

Do Chinese Firms need to adopt the Anglo-American Model and Can they adopt it - Essay Example With these elements in place, it becomes easier to state that the Anglo-American model would be successful and implemented rather flawlessly. However, Chinese state-owned firms complicate the process of adopting the Anglo-American model due to Communist influence in Board representation and the manifesto of Communist ideology that is directly opposite to the liberal business and social policies that are entrenched in the Anglo-American model. Government influence in business strategy development, alongside Communist influence at the highest levels of governance, complicate the process of adopting the Western governance model. All situations considered, there is ample research support that the Anglo-American model would be relevant in the privately-owned enterprises in China. The question as to whether it should be adopted is addressed based on the structure of the capital market in China, its securities market, and the nature of the relationship between firms in the country and the r ole of stakeholders as decision-makers in a variety of Chinese industries. Do Chinese firms need to adopt the Anglo-American Model and can they adopt it? Introduction The Anglo-American model of corporate governance is founded on several principles and ideologies. ... The second principle is protectionism, as a primary goal, of corporate constituencies, made up of shareholders, creditors and employees. The Anglo-American corporate governance model establishes the ethical expectations and legally-binding regulations to protect the rights of ownership. This is accomplished with legislation enacted by the Securities and Exchange Commission and other Congressional legalities that ensure the development of Standing Committees, such as in areas of auditing or compensation and nomination committees. The Chinese corporate governance model, both in state-owned and privately-owned institutions, is not completely dissimilar to the Anglo-American model, whereby legal expectations for duty of care over protecting the shareholder and other institutional investors are the primary goals of corporate leadership. This essay describes the comparative aspects of the Chinese versus the Anglo-American system of corporate governance, offering support for the ability of Chinese firms to adopt many of the principles associated with Anglo-American governance. There is ample evidence that Chinese firms can adopt the Anglo-American model due to a variety of national reforms that give more autonomy and control to businesses in the country. The Anglo-American Model The Anglo-American Model of corporate governance was adopted under the principles and ideologies of a capitalistic and free market economy. This type of system is a holistic economic system whereby methods of production, industry and trade maintain control by private business ownership where profitability for the corporation are primary objectives (Durlauf and Blume 2008). The free market economy is one where demand and supply are segregated from governmental control and authority, whereby

Monday, February 10, 2020

LEGAL ASPECTS OF INTL BUSINESS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

LEGAL ASPECTS OF INTL BUSINESS - Assignment Example Some of the criteria for evaluating foreign investment proposal include: conformity of the document package with the requirements provided, conformity of the investment project and the priorities of the host country, ability to contribute to positive effect on the economy, conformity of the project to internationally accepted definition of investment project, and the quality of investment project. The types of free zone include the Free Trade Zone, the Free Port, and the Processing Export Zone (EPZ). A Free Trade Zone is a geographical area where trade flows are permitted and unrestricted. A Free Port is a Free Zone that is specifically linked to a seaport or airport (The Meneren Corporation 2005). Export Processing Zone is an area in which foreign firms produce goods for export and receive special incentives. A bonded is a restricted building or secured area where goods may be stored, manufactured, and transformed free of duty. The ownership rights of such areas or building may be possessed by the state or private enterprise. Once the goods enter the warehouse, the importer and the owner of the warehouse incur liability under a

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Blood Clotting Essay Example for Free

Blood Clotting Essay Blood clotting is an adaptive/defensive mechanism of the human body. Its primary purpose is to prevent the loss of blood from the cardiovascular system from damaged blood vessels in order to avoid shock and possible death. This accomplished by a process called coagulation wherein blood solidify at the site of injury through a complex process involving platelet aggregation and fibrin formation coupled with thrombin and a dozen other clotting factors. Though the mechanism is designed to prevent deleterious harm, clotting can also be harmful especially when inappropriately triggered such as in the case of strokes and infarctions. In the article by Cathleen Genova, she discusses the findings of a report made in the April 17th 2009 issue of Cell, a journal from Cell Press Publication, where researchers found a possible way of preventing life-threatening clots. The discovery might offer a new way to fight clot formation before it can even begin, according to the researchers. According to the findings, thrombin isn’t the only player in the clotting process, in fact â€Å"enzymes known as matrix metalloproteases have recently emerged as important players in platelet function and the biology of blood vessels. Two of those enzymes, MMP-1 and MMP-2 can actually encourage platelet activation† early in the clotting process. If treatments were aimed at blocking the MMP1-PAR1 pathway, a new way of treating patients with acute coronary syndromes may be developed. The advantages of such treatments, the researchers predict, would be that an MMP-1 inhibitor might be better tolerated especially since careful balance between the risk of dangerous blood clots and the risk of bleeding must be kept in mind. Works Cited Genova, Cathleen. â€Å"How Life-Threatening Blood Clots Take Hold. † Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intrnational Ltd. Accessed 23 April 2009 http://www. medicalnewsto-day. com/articles/146508. php ARTICLE http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/articles/146508. php How Life-Threatening Blood Clots Take Hold Article Date: 18 Apr 2009 0:00 PDT When plaques coating blood vessel walls rupture and expose collagen, platelets spring into action to form a blood clot at the damaged site. Now, a new report in the April 17th issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication, reveals how those life-threatening clots a leading cause of death in the United States, Europe and other industrialized countries get an early grip. The discovery might offer a new way to fight clot formation before it can even begin, according to the researchers. Compared to other diseases, blood clotting has been very well understood, said Athan Kuliopulos of Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine. Nevertheless, he continued, many people still suffer from heart attacks, ischemic stroke and death as a result of clot formation. Drugs designed to inhibit clots through known pathways are widely used by millions. They work well, but not perfectly. There is still an unmet need. Those drugs include aspirin and the so-called thienopyridines, including Clopidogrel (trade name Plavix). Scientists have known that a protein called thrombin plays an important role in clot formation as a potent activator of platelets. It also cuts fibrinogen into fibrin, a fibrous protein that works together with platelets to form a clot. But thrombin isnt the whole story. Enzymes known as matrix metalloproteases have recently emerged as important players in platelet function and the biology of blood vessels. Two of those enzymes, MMP-1 and MMP-2 can actually encourage platelet activation, according to earlier studies, although the means were unknown. In cancer cells too, MMP-1 activates a receptor known as PAR1 the same receptor that is also responsible for receiving the thrombin signal on human platelets. There is abundant proMMP-1 coating platelets, Kuliopulos said. We thought maybe it was on the outside waiting to be activated by something. Maybe it could be involved in an early event in blood clotting, before thrombin is around. Indeed, Kuliopulos team has now connected those dots. They show that exposure of platelets to collagen activates MMP-1, which in turn directly cut PAR1 on the surface of platelets. Collagen is the first thing a platelet sees when a blood vessel ruptures or is cut. The MMP-1-PAR1 pathway activates another set of molecular players known to be involved in early clot formation, he said. Those activated platelets change their shape, sending out spikes and membrane sheets. Within seconds, they become more sticky, adhering to the vessel surface and then other platelets. Moreover, they show that treatments that block the MMP1-PAR1 pathway prevent blood clots from forming in the presence of collagen, suggesting that drugs targeting this metalloprotease-receptor system could offer a new way to treat patients with acute coronary syndromes. According to the new results, PAR1 inhibitors already being tested in clinical trials might have an added benefit, Kuliopulos said. Its also possible they might work a little too well, since there is a careful balance between the risk of dangerous blood clots and the risk of bleeding. An MMP-1 inhibitor might be better tolerated, he said. The researchers include Vishal Trivedi, Adrienne Boire, Boris Tchernychev, Nicole C. Kaneider, Andrew J. Leger, Katie OCallaghan, Lidija Covic, and Athan Kuliopulos, of Tufts University School of Medicine, Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA. Source: Cathleen Genova Cell Press

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Pacifism & Conscientious Objection :: essays research papers fc

During the 20th century America has been involved in many conflicts that have led to war or the taking up of arms against other humans and nations. Although the vast majority of Americans have blindly accepted these actions throughout the century, more and more people are seeing war as morally wrong. Reasons for this epiphany are based off of a variety of things and encompass many other aspects related to war and killing examples include: due to moral and ethical principles, objection to war due to strong religious beliefs, the objection to violence due to the same ideals above, objection to the government's use of force, and the objection to the use of weapons of mass destruction. Many of the core beliefs of conscientious objection derive from the teachings or beliefs of pacifism. Pacifism has been a system of thinking and living for hundreds of years, and, in the 20th century many objection and pacifistic movements have sprung up all around the nation, more so than in any other time. Pacifism and conscientious objection in the United States have been moral issues that have fallen under question due to the belief of the participants that killing, war, and the act of violence is wrong and immoral. To begin to understand the workings of conscientious objection, it is important have a clear view of what pacifism is. The roots of pacifism reach back for literally hundreds of years. Practically all of the messiahs of all the chief religions of the world preached for pacifism including: Allah and Muhammad from the Muslim Koran, Jesus and God from the Bible used by Catholics, Christens, and Quakers, and in the Jewish Torah. Other teachers of pacifism include: Plato and Socrates. The moral and ethical principles of pacifism and conscientious objection have been present throughout United States history. There have been known objectors in every single war that America has been somehow involved, Including: The French and Indian War, The Revolutionary War, The War of 1812, The Civil War, The Spanish American War, The Mexican American War, World War One, World War Two, The Korean War, The Vietnam War, The Persian Gulf War, and into the ongoing War Against "Terror". Pacifism is the refusal to participate in any violent actions and or killing. This can be derived from the belief that all life is sacred and that it is morally wrong to take another persons life.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Overpopulation: Unemployment and Possible Solutions

To Thi Thu Huong Writing task 2 THE WOLD IS EXPERIENCING A DRAMATIC INCREASE IN POPULATION. THIS IS CAUSING PROBLEMS NOT ONLY FOR POOR, UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES, BUT ALSO FOR INDUSTRIALIZED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS. DESCRIBE SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT OVERPOPULATION CAUSES AND SUGGEST AT LEAST ONE POSSIBLE SOLUTION. Due to recent improvement in healthcare system as well as the economic growth, the population is increasing faster and faster. This is laying a heavy burden on the economy, society and environment of both advanced and developing nations.In this essay, I’m going to explore the main problems caused by overcrowding and suggest some possible solutions. First, overpopulation tends to slowdown the economy because it creates a shortage of public goods such as electricity and water supply, etc. which depend on the government allocation. Hence, the authorities, especially in poor countries have to apply for high-interest loans from abroad to fill in the budget deficit. Consequ ently, those countries are struggling to repay the long-term foreign debts and unable to escape the vicious circle of poverty. Second, there is a great deal of troubles for the society with too many people.For example, the appreciation of unemployment rates will cause bad impacts on social welfare; and the education and healthcare system may not be able to meet the needs of the public. Also, the community will be suffered from severe hunger, formidable crime rates and unstable politic situation. Moreover, when the planet gets more crowded, the environment is also threatened. Along with the intensive farming and industrialization to fulfill the dearth of the extra residents, there will be more sewage, redundant fertilizer and pesticide, and exhaust fumes that pollute the water the land the air.In addition, the exploitation of natural resources will drain the earth’s stockpile to the point that it can no longer supply for our life. Eventually, what awaits humankind is a future of suicide. Fortunately, there are some possible solutions for those problems. The government can promote public-private provision to deal with the needs for public goods. An increase in taxation and industry investment will settle many social and economy troubles such as unemployment and budget inadequacy. We also need stricter regulations on resource usage and pollutant emission.At the same time, a focus on early education will help untie the knot of overpopulation from the root. The more developed nations and international institutions should help the underdeveloped countries by providing more ODAs and FDIs as well as establishing consultancy councils. To summarize, overpopulation is now a world wide phenomenon that is followed by many negative economic, social and environmental impacts. However, those difficulties can be overcome with the efforts of both the government and the individual.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Livermorium Facts - Element 116 or Lv

Livermorium (Lv) is element 116 on the periodic table of the elements. Livermorium is a highly radioactive man-made element (not observed in nature). Heres a collection of interesting facts about element 116, as well as a look at its history, properties, and uses: Interesting Livermorium Facts Livermorium was first produced in July 19, 2000 by scientists working jointly at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia). At the Dubna facility, a single atom of livermorium-293 was observed from bombarding a curium-248 target with calcium-48 ions. The element 116 atom decayed into flerovium-289, via alpha decay.Researchers at Lawrence Livermore had announced synthesis of element 116 in 1999, by fusing krypton-86 and lead-208 nuclei to form ununoctium-293 (element 118), which decayed into livermorium-289. However, they retracted the discovery after no one (including themselves) was able to replicate the result. In fact, in 2002, the lab announced the discovery had been based on fabricated data attributed to the principal author, Victor Ninov.Element 116 was called eka-polonium, using Mendeleevs naming convention for unverified elements, or ununhexium (Uuh), using the IUPAC naming convention. Once a new elements synthes is is verified, the discoverers get the right to give it a name. The Dubna group wanted to name element 116 moscovium, after the Moscow Oblast, where Dubna is situated. The Lawrence Livermore team wanted the name livermorium (Lv), which recognizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Livermore, California, where it is located. The city is named, in turn, for American rancher Robert Livermore, so he indirectly got an element named after him. The IUPAC approved the name livermorium on May 23, 2012.Should researchers ever synthesize enough of element 116 to observe it, its likely livermorium would be a solid metal at room temperature. Based on its position on the periodic table, the element should display chemical properties similar to those of its homologous element, polonium. Some of these chemical properties are also shared by oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium. Based on its physical and atomic data, livermorium is expected to favor the 2 oxidation state, although some ac tivity of the 4 oxidation state may occur. The 6 oxidation state is not expected to occur at all. Livermorium is expected to have a higher melting point than polonium, yet a lower boiling point. Livermorium is expected to have a higher density than polonium.Livermorium is near an island of nuclear stability, centered on copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). Elements within the island of stability decay almost exclusively via alpha decay. Livermorium lacks the neutrons to truly be on the island, yet its heavier isotopes decay more slowly than its lighter ones.The molecule livermorane (LvH2) would be the heaviest homolog of water. Livermorium Atomic Data Element Name/Symbol: Livermorium (Lv) Atomic Number: 116 Atomic Weight: [293] Discovery:  Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2000) Electron Configuration:  [Rn] 5f14  6d10  7s2  7p4   or perhaps [Rn] 5f14  6d10  7s2 7p21/2  7p2  3/2, to reflect the 7p subshell split Element Group: p-block, group 16 (chalcogens) Element Period: period 7 Density: 12.9 g/cm3 (predicted) Oxidation States: probably -2, 2, 4 with the 2 oxidation state predicted to be most stable Ionization Energies: Ionization energies are predicted values: 1st:  723.6  kJ/mol2nd:  1331.5  kJ/mol3rd:  2846.3  kJ/mol Atomic Radius: 183 pm Covalent Radius: 162-166 pm (extrapolated) Isotopes: 4 isotopes are known, with mass number 290-293. Livermorium-293 has the longest half-life, which is approximately 60 milliseconds.   Melting Point:  637–780  K  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹(364–507  Ã‚ °C, ​687–944  Ã‚ °F) predicted Boiling Point:1035–1135  K ​(762–862  Ã‚ °C, ​1403–1583  Ã‚ °F) predicted Uses of Livermorium: At present, the only uses of livermorium are for scientific research. Livermorium Sources: Superheavy elements, such as element 116, are the result of nuclear fusion. If scientists succeed in forming even heavier elements, livermorium might be seen as a decay product. Toxicity: Livermorium presents a health hazard because of its extreme radioactivity. The element serves no known biological function in any organism. References Fricke, Burkhard (1975). Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties. Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. 21: 89–144.Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). Transactinides and the future elements. In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer ScienceBusiness Media.Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov; Lobanov; Abdullin; Polyakov; Shirokovsky; Tsyganov; Gulbekian; Bogomolov; Gikal; Mezentsev; Iliev; Subbotin; Sukhov; Ivanov; Buklanov; Subotic; Itkis; Moody; Wild; Stoyer; Stoyer; Lougheed; Laue; Karelin; Tatarinov (2000). Observation of the decay of  292116.  Physical Review C.  63:Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V.; Lobanov, Yu.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Shirokovsky, I.; Tsyganov, Yu.; Gulbekian, G.; Bogomolov, S.; Gikal, B. N.; et al. (2004). Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotop es of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions  233,238U,  242Pu, and  248Cm48Ca.  Physical Review C.  70  (6).